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According to Beck, the new tasks of education include pupils and students getting to know and internalising a cognitive map that allows them to better understand the multi-dimensionality of glocal life and action. In Beck s view, one of the most exciting consequences of globalisation is that in the world of tomorrow, we must find even more courage for misunderstanding, that now more than ever, we must promote attentive dialogue ibid.

References Ulrich Beck: Was ist Globalisierung? Art embodies freedom of thought and addresses the mind, which is guided by feelings and emotions. Since it often addresses collective issues at a personal level, art is capable of mediating between the individual and the community. Art carries an inherent utopian potential, because it reflects not only what is, but also what could be.

The experience of over fifty years of development cooperation, that is, aid, promotion, exchange, dialogue and discussion between North and South, has spawned a variety of concepts and approaches. Although they are not new, concepts for empowering locals in development processes still remain difficult to implement.

The goal is here to define and implement development that is carried out by people, societies or their governments and to promote and strengthen such developments and initiatives. The term ownership is used to describe this concept.

This process entails local people taking independent responsibility for their own development rather than allowing external influences to determine goals and the means by which they are attained, which would only succeed in guiding these so-called developing countries to follow the example of industrialised countries in an unreflective manner.

This demand is only met infrequently in concrete reality and is significantly affected by international economic relations. How can art and artistic activities be made to form an integral part of international development cooperation on a global and regional level and how can they be used more effectively and potently in such approaches than is currently the case? How can universal and individual understandings of development be brought together? These questions remain thus far largely unanswered. Arts Education and its Value to the People When we address the role of art and culture in development processes, it is not only professional artists and cultural producers that should be considered here.

1. - Deutsches Archiv für Theaterpädagogik

Art is itself a fundamental part of arts education. Under the heading of arts education, international cultural policy discourse places an emphasis on the recipients of the arts and culture. Therefore, Arts Education is a universal human right, for all learners, including those who are often excluded from education Arts Education is also a means of enabling nations to develop the human resources necessary to tap their valuable cultural capital.

UNESCO Road Map for Arts Education; page 3; 5 Grasping arts education as an essential component of a comprehensive concept for education marks a turning point with respect to an extended universal understanding of development. It is thus logical to question what arts and culture and arts education in particular are capable of achieving in processes of democratisation and social development. Experiences gleaned from projects and programmes show that art and culture strengthen the ego, provide strength of character and teach critical faculty Oscar Negt in Oliver Scheytt [].

Aesthetically educated individuals may in turn stimulate the vitality of society by generating increased willingness for social commentary, finding long-term solutions for grievances and bringing about social change, all of which can develop into shifts in behaviour and structures. Long-term experiences gathered from programmes on the African continent, such as Umoja Cultural Flying Carpet and Music Crossroads demonstrate the social power and importance of art and culture.

These programmes are mainly financed by Norway and Sweden, with some funding also coming from Spain. The Music Crossroads youth band support programme aims to nurture both musical and life skills.

Modern German Political Drama 1980-2000 (Studies in German Literature Linguistics and Culture)

Access to musical instruments and rehearsal space together with guidance in music composition, performance and marketing make up one key element of the programme. The way in which it promotes communication between young people about social issues also shows its relevance to society. Funding music industry infrastructure can thus form part of promoting individual and collective awareness and reducing social exclusion.

Young people need forums where they can express themselves freely. It is important that they receive supervision and are not left alone. The arts are a tool for communication. The experiences made at the festivals that have been organized for more than 15 years by Music Crossroads in several southern African countries, including various ones outside capital cities, make that clear.

The Umoja Cultural Flying Carpet programme shows several parallels here.

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What is particularly exciting is the fact that it does. This enables the concept of cultural exchange to receive an additional layer of meaning. Both individual and collective worth, benefits and value are ascribed to arts education. These range from allowing individuals to learn social and communication skills to making creative islands available within the difficult surroundings of many children in developing countries, enabling group interaction and bringing about reflection on overarching social issues.

The terms cultural empowerment and artistic literacy can be used to describe the relationship between arts and development. In this sense, arts education can be seen as one means of reducing poverty and social exclusion both fundamental problems in developing countries that is not purely based on economic factors. Victor Sala, the Mozambican consultant for the Umoja Cultural Flying Carpet project, remarks that: We think that poverty cannot only be found in materialistic terms.

What you have in your mind, how you think about things, how you place yourself within society. If someone is positive inside, you don t see the things they lack, as they are able to find solutions to get around this. We cannot give them food, but we believe that reducing poverty is also in the mind of the people. So if we explore the field of arts and culture, we know that people are really participating, because they have so much inside of them.

When you perform you can also influence others to take part.

Compared with the efficiency-oriented evaluation criteria used in development policy, the impact of art and culture is often not actually tangible. Does this mean that art and arts education are thus a mere luxury that a society can only attend to once other basic developmental steps have been achieved and should therefore not be considered priorities? Or are they an area that needs to be incorporated into national and international development strategies from the very beginning because they form such a vital part of human life?

Internationally speaking, funding for arts and culture and in this sense arts education too is usually found in the form of pilot and special programmes for development cooperation. The aforementioned examples in southern Africa and Nicaragua, along with other emerging ones, such as those created within the context of Germany s Action Africa, a special programme funded by the German Foreign Office, remain purely individual initiatives. While some governments and non-governmental organisations show increasing devotion to this area, others consistently ignore it.

The Millennium Development Goals often do not find any place here either, despite their forming part of the United Nations framework for international collaboration between the North and South. Due to the circumstances described above, it is clearly apparent that art and culture and arts education do not comprise development priorities.

Under the current conception of development policy, it is unlikely they ever will do. In general, arguments in favour of art and thus also arts education state that it is not about financial output first and foremost, but rather about artistic and educational results of a high artistic or arts educational quality, and thus also about an individual and collective educational mandate.

Since art and arts education are not able to support themselves financially, they must be subsidised by the public or private sector. The initial need to co-finance art education programmes by means of development cooperation is clear.


But it is equally clear that such programmes will not be successful in the long run without The Limited Importance of Arts Education in Funding Programmes The social impact of art is not only difficult to measure, it also remains difficult to plan and predict. Development policy and cooperation as they are currently understood demand the use of funds to be justified and therefore encourage establishing clear goals achievable within reasonable time periods.

Approaches based around the idea of art for art s sake are certainly justified from an artistic perspective. Those who understand the value and relevance of art to society are able to support its existence and demand that it receive funding in its own right. Development cooperation is only in a financial position to allocate funds for starting up projects. Based on the concept of ownership, it should not be expected to contribute more than that anyway.

Fritjof Capra

It is also necessary to define the exact period of time required for starting up such arts and arts education initiatives. Private businesses should be involved here as well as governments. Just as there is a widespread lack of understanding and interest on the part of governments in the partner countries, there appears to be a similar lack of understanding and interest in arts and educational promotion on the part of banks and other private sector companies in these countries, both regionally and nationally as well as in inter-regional and international contexts.

This is of particular note given that these institutions are often part of the same group of financial institutions and major corporations that fund arts programs in Europe. If there is a lack of support and structures for national cultural funding in the partner countries involved in development cooperation, fostering and strengthening this support must become a goal too. Needless to say, generating such support remains subject to the current rules of development cooperation and depends on the partner countries drawing on the same basic self-determination and responsibility for the development of their own society.

Training as Part of Arts Educational Projects in Developing Countries and Countries in Transition Findings from many arts education programmes and cultural scenes in developing countries and countries in transition show that arts education programmes needn t be Western concepts that are divorced from their local settings. Many existing programmes partially originate in these countries or have been developed in close collaboration between the South and the North.

The youth orchestra for street children in Venezuela and various projects in other Latin American countries, such as the Biblioburros book donkeys in Columbia, are additional examples of innovative concepts developed and implemented in the South. The North can certainly learn through such experiences made in the South.

It has become clear that aside from financial aid, support is also needed in training for teachers and artists as well as in regard to cultural policy. Cultural sector infrastructure in most developing countries and countries in transition is largely lacking, particularly in terms of financing and provision of space and equipment.

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There is also a lack of adequate training and support programmes, although these could be co-financed via exchanges between neighbouring regions and countries as well as those within the international context. The training programmes that do exist such as those provided by the British Council and the Goethe-Institut remain just a proverbial drop in the bucket, which equally applies to other areas of the development debate. At the same time, they are also a valuable first step, which, when augmented by local approaches, may pave the way for additional programmes on a larger scale.

On the one hand, we thus have extensive experience with and appreciation for the social relevance of arts education. On the other hand however, there remain significant barriers to it being implemented and maintained in extensive, long-term fashion, especially in the international context. To sum up: there is a serious lack of regional, national and international strategies and efforts. Without them, arts education will certainly continue to operate at the margins. Without them, arts education, despite its proven fundamental value, will not contribute to the development of global societies in the way it could and ought to.

The other position defended mainly by development aid agents assumes that it would be cynical with regard to the cruel poverty and conflicts on earth to abandon development aid.