Guide MEDIEVAL FRANCE FROM THE REIGN OF HUGUES CAPET TO THE BEGINNING OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY.

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History of France : The early Capetians

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France - The emergence of France | Britannica

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Shipping cost cannot be calculated. Please enter a valid ZIP Code. Shipping to: Worldwide. No additional import charges at delivery! This item will be shipped through the Global Shipping Program and includes international tracking. Learn more - opens in a new window or tab. There are 1 items available. In fact, a good case could be made that he never really put down Hugh, who died on crusade.

Louis also defended towns against tyrannical rule, and his Customs of Lorris struck a blow for liberty on behalf of communes and serfs p.

Louis VII —80 , son and heir of Louis VI, inherited lands under control with no real challenge to his right to rule. He seems to have been priest-ridden and uncommonly pious, but he protected his rights over churches and quarrelled with the papacy over appointments to bishoprics.

The Capetian Dynasty

He bungled the Second Crusade but managed to make his way to Jerusalem. A main criticism of Philip has been his role on the Third Crusade, but Bradbury feels that the chroniclers of the event were hostile to Philip and therefore downplayed his part in it p. Philip made significant contributions to the fall of Acre, the signal victory of the whole debacle pp.

His friendship with the Plantagenets waxed and waned but in the end he took control of a large portion of their French territories, doubling the size of his domain. Philip created the French royal navy, increasing it until it reached 1, ships in pp. The reign of Louis IX —70 lasted almost half a century because of the premature death of his father. Bradbury believes that no other Capetian took his coronation oath more faithfully than Louis: he kept the faith, protected the Church, dispensed good justice and maintained peace at home p.

His mother Blanche of Castile and his wife Margaret of Provence influenced him strongly but never dominated him p. As a crusader, Louis failed miserably. After the debacle in Egypt during the Sixth Crusade, Louis salvaged something when he went to the Holy Land and strengthened its defences pp. His religious views were traditional for the era p. The church soon canonised him as a saint because of his personal piety, which at times bordered on the extraordinary p. He continued the French practice of granting royal brothers apanages, large tracts of land that were usually counties and duchies, to keep them loyal to the crown and ensure that the lands would revert to the monarchy if that person died without heirs.

He became more active than his predecessors in the south of France and in Spanish affairs pp. His son and heir Philip IV — succeeded him at age Philip seems to have been an enigma — silent, taciturn, cold, remote and conventionally pious, a man whose personality eludes deciphering.

No one, however, can argue that his reign was insignificant p.

France in the Middle Ages

During his kingship Paris truly became the capital of France p. He supported its university; several departments of state took up residence there, and professional men flocked to the city to improve their station in life. Philip hit churches heavily for revenues. He also demanded a general tax for the first time in France p. He believes that the reason why Philip suppressed the Knights of the Temple lies somewhere amid three possible motives p. His three sons, Louis X —16 , Philip V —22 and Charles IV —8 , all reigned briefly without male heirs to succeed them and so the direct rule of the Capetian kings came to an end.

Bradbury ends his text with a summary chapter on the Capetian legacy. By the end of this long line of able kings France was the greatest power in Europe. It had reached its modern boundaries, and the royal domain was huge, almost double that of the magnates combined. Apanages given to royal brothers had returned to the monarchy for the most part.

Paris had become the capital of the kingdom, with government centralised there, and its university had reached new heights. His authority ended there, and if he dared travel outside his small area, he risked being captured and held for ransom, though his life would be largely safe. The plot failed, but the fact that no one was punished illustrates how tenuous his hold on power was.

Beyond his power base, in the rest of France, there were still as many codes of law as there were fiefdoms. The "country" operated with different forms of currency and at least a dozen languages. Therefore, Hugh Capet's reign was marked by numerous power struggles with the vassals on the borders of the Seine and the Loire. While Hugh Capet's military power was limited and he had to seek military aid from Richard I of Normandy , his unanimous election as king gave him great moral authority and influence. His son Robert continued to reign. Most historians regard the beginnings of modern France as having initiated with the coronation of Hugh Capet.

This is because, as Count of Paris , he made the city his power centre. The monarch began a long process of exerting control of the rest of the country from there. He is regarded as the founder of the Capetian dynasty. The direct Capetians, or the House of Capet , ruled France from to ; thereafter, the Kingdom was ruled by cadet branches of the dynasty.

All French kings through Louis Philippe , and all royals since then, have belonged to the dynasty.