Kennedy ran with a pretty cool circle of friends, and Frank Sinatra was one of them. Throughout his life, JFK was the target of at least four assassination attempts—including once in , shortly after being elected president, when a retired postal worker filled his car with dynamite and followed the president-elect from Hyannisport to Palm Beach. His last words were in regards to how well he had been received in Dallas.
Novelist and poet George Eliot—who was born in England on November 22, —is best remembered for writing classic books like Middlemarch and Silas Marner. Despite the time period she wrote in, the author whose real name was Mary Anne, or Marian, Evans was no stuffy Victorian. She had a famously scandalous love life and, among other linguistic accomplishments, is responsible for the term pop music. Here are 15 things you might not know about the beloved writer. George Eliot was born on the grounds of Arbury Hall and Estate , a sprawling mansion in Warwickshire, England with hundreds of acres of surrounding gardens and farmland.
Her father, Robert Evans, worked for the estate's owners, the Newdigate family, as a manager and agent. His job entailed collecting rents from tenant farmers and overseeing the property's coal mine. Eliot was just an infant when her family moved from Arbury Hall to a home in a nearby town. But Arbury and the Warwickshire countryside left their mark on her.
In Scenes of Clerical Life , Eliot's collection of three short stories, she wrote about the area and drew inspiration from real places and people. And some of her stories mirrored reality pretty closely.
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In the early s, Eliot wrote for The Westminster Review , a London-based periodical founded by philosophers Jeremy Bentham and James Mill, contributing essays and reviews using the name Marian Evans. She soon became the de facto editor of the progressive journal, though her role was anonymous. Years later, other writers reviewed Eliot's own pseudonymous works in the journal she once edited. Throughout her life, Eliot put her language skills to work translating foreign works into English. Upon reading her translation, one English nobleman called it "the most pestilential book ever vomited out of the jaws of hell.
Eliot was by no means a misogynist, but she did have some harsh words for fellow women writers. In an anonymous essay titled "Silly Novels by Lady Novelists," Eliot lamented the frivolous characters and unrealistic plots that she argued were nearly ubiquitous features of novels written by women at the time.
Published in The Westminster Review in , Eliot's essay asserted that these books, full of cliches and improbable romantic endings, made educated women look foolish. She also criticized the writing style of other women of her time, saying they mistook "vagueness for depth, bombast for eloquence, and affectation for originality.
Eliot's appearance was a source of avid discussion during her lifetime, and her looks continue to fascinate readers today. Eliot herself joked about her ugliness in letters to friends, and the novelist Henry James once described her in a letter to his father as "magnificently ugly, deliciously hideous. Despite her plain appearance, men were drawn to Eliot. In the same letter where he called her "deliciously hideous," James explained his counterintuitive attraction toward her like this: "Now in this vast ugliness resides a most powerful beauty which, in a very few minutes, steals forth and charms the mind, so that you end, as I ended, in falling in love with her.
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After various dalliances and a marriage proposal that she turned down, she spent more than two decades with the philosopher and critic George Lewes. But Lewes was already married, and as a result, many in Eliot's social circle including her brother shunned her. Though Lewes couldn't obtain an official divorce from his estranged wife, he and Eliot lived together as partners until his death in , and she referred to herself as Mrs.
In , both to avoid the sexism of the publishing industry and distance her literary work from her scandalous romantic situation, she adopted the pen name George Eliot, a male nom de plume that paid homage to Lewes. In addition to adopting his first name, some historians have also suggested that "Eliot" derives from "To L ewes , I owe it. After Lewes's death, Eliot channeled her grief by editing his writing and spending time with her lawyer and accountant, John Cross. Although Eliot was 60 and Cross was just 40, the two friends fell in love and married at London's St. George's Church in the spring of After their wedding, the pair traveled to Venice, Italy for their honeymoon.
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Although Cross wrote a letter to his sister indicating that he was having a delightful time, Eliot knew something was wrong. Her new husband was depressed, agitated, and losing weight. She called a doctor to their hotel room and was speaking with him when Cross jumped off the balcony into the Grand Canal. Cross was rescued by a hotel worker and the personal gondolier the couple had hired to take them around the waterways.
The newlyweds eventually continued on their trip, and they remained married until Eliot's death later that year. Historians continue to speculate about the reason for his jump, and whether it was a suicide attempt—Cross may have had a personal and family history of mental illness—or some kind of heat-induced delirium. In , Dinitia Smith turned the mysterious incident into a novel — The Honeymoon. You probably don't associate George Eliot with Lady Gaga, but the Oxford English Dictionary credits the Victorian novelist with coining the term pop to refer to popular music.
But there is too much 'Pop.
Eliot coined a number of other now-common terms in her writing. For instance, she was the first to use the word browser in the modern sense of someone who is casually looking around like a browser in a bookstore. Eliot's historical novel Romola marked the first recorded time the word was used to mean a person generally surveying something.
In it, she describes several friends of Florentine politician Bartolomeo Scala as "amiable browsers in the Medicean park. A medical certificate issued in accordance with the requirements of STCW shall be accepted by the competent authority, for the purpose of Regulation 1. A medical certificate meeting the substance of those requirements, in the case of seafarers not covered by STCW, shall similarly be accepted. The medical certificate shall be issued by a duly qualified medical practitioner or, in the case of a certificate solely concerning eyesight, by a person recognized by the competent authority as qualified to issue such a certificate.
Practitioners must enjoy full professional independence in exercising their medical judgement in undertaking medical examination procedures. Seafarers that have been refused a certificate or have had a limitation imposed on their ability to work, in particular with respect to time, field of work or trading area, shall be given the opportunity to have a further examination by another independent medical practitioner or by an independent medical referee.
Each medical certificate shall state in particular that: a the hearing and sight of the seafarer concerned, and the colour vision in the case of a seafarer to be employed in capacities where fitness for the work to be performed is liable to be affected by defective colour vision, are all satisfactory; and b the seafarer concerned is not suffering from any medical condition likely to be aggravated by service at sea or to render the seafarer unfit for such service or to endanger the health of other persons on board. Unless a shorter period is required by reason of the specific duties to be performed by the seafarer concerned or is required under STCW: a a medical certificate shall be valid for a maximum period of two years unless the seafarer is under the age of 18, in which case the maximum period of validity shall be one year; b a certification of colour vision shall be valid for a maximum period of six years.
In urgent cases the competent authority may permit a seafarer to work without a valid medical certificate until the next port of call where the seafarer can obtain a medical certificate from a qualified medical practitioner, provided that: a the period of such permission does not exceed three months; and b the seafarer concerned is in possession of an expired medical certificate of recent date. If the period of validity of a certificate expires in the course of a voyage, the certificate shall continue in force until the next port of call where the seafarer can obtain a medical certificate from a qualified medical practitioner, provided that the period shall not exceed three months.
The medical certificates for seafarers working on ships ordinarily engaged on international voyages must as a minimum be provided in English.
Seafarers shall not work on a ship unless they are trained or certified as competent or otherwise qualified to perform their duties. Seafarers shall not be permitted to work on a ship unless they have successfully completed training for personal safety on board ship. Training and certification in accordance with the mandatory instruments adopted by the International Maritime Organization shall be considered as meeting the requirements of paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Regulation.
Any Member which, at the time of its ratification of this Convention, was bound by the Certification of Able Seamen Convention, No. All seafarers shall have access to an efficient, adequate and accountable system for finding employment on board ship without charge to the seafarer. Each Member shall require, in respect of seafarers who work on ships that fly its flag, that shipowners who use seafarer recruitment and placement services that are based in countries or territories in which this Convention does not apply, ensure that those services conform to the requirements set out in the Code.
Where a Member has private seafarer recruitment and placement services operating in its territory whose primary purpose is the recruitment and placement of seafarers or which recruit and place a significant number of seafarers, they shall be operated only in conformity with a standardized system of licensing or certification or other form of regulation. Undue proliferation of private seafarer recruitment and placement services shall not be encouraged.
Nothing in this Standard or Regulation 1. The competent authority shall closely supervise and control all seafarer recruitment and placement services operating in the territory of the Member concerned. Any licences or certificates or similar authorizations for the operation of private services in the territory are granted or renewed only after verification that the seafarer recruitment and placement service concerned meets the requirements of national laws and regulations. Here is a guide to what is currently in place:.
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