Germany needed to land to expand, as an outlet for its surplus population, talent, organizing ability, financial capital, and manufacturing output. The riches of the world, especially raw materials, controlled by the British and the French, must be disgorged by the enemy to the benefit of Germany. The propaganda designed for the home market included points A through G. The Germans realized they needed to appeal to vocal supporters in countries allied with the Central Powers, especially Austria, Bulgaria, and Turkey.
They put special emphasis on the Muslim world, using Turkey as their leverage. Much of the propaganda was oriented toward minorities in the Allied countries, as they tried to stir up Muslims in India and Russia and ethnic groups in Eastern Europe, especially the Poles. In prioritizing the goal of destabilizing the enemy, Berlin realized that it was often counterproductive to promote German glories. Other elements that were hostile or indifferent to Germany, especially among the far left and the Muslims, could best be reached through their own spokesman.
Hence large sums—upwards of nine tons of gold—were given the Bolsheviks to spread their own anti-tsarist propaganda. British propaganda during World War I — called "an impressive exercise in improvisation" — was hastily expanded at the beginning of the war and was rapidly brought under government control as the War Propaganda Bureau Wellington House , under the overall leadership of journalist Charles Masterman. The Bureau began its propaganda campaign on 2 September when Masterman invited 25 leading British authors to Wellington House to discuss ways of best promoting Britain's interests during the war.
Trevelyan and H. After January the Bureau's activities were subsumed under the office of the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. In May Masterman began recruiting artists, including Muirhead Bone , Francis Dodd , Eric Kennington and others, to paint pictures of the war in France and the home front. In early it was decided that a senior government figure should take over responsibility for propaganda and on 4 March Lord Beaverbrook , owner of the Daily Express newspaper, was made Minister of Information.
The British effort soon far surpassed the German in its quality and ability to sway the public mood both at home and abroad. A variety of propaganda methods were used by the British during the war, with emphasis on the need for credibility. They were targeted at influential individuals, such as journalists and politicians, rather than a mass audience.
By , 7 million copies had been circulated by Wellington House in various languages. British propagandists also sought to influence the foreign press, by providing it with information through the Neutral Press Committee and the Foreign Office. Special telegraph agencies were established in various European cities, including Bucharest , Bilbao and Amsterdam , in order to facilitate the spread of information.
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Recruitment was a central theme of domestic propaganda until the introduction of conscription in January The most common theme for recruitment posters was patriotism, which evolved into appeals for people to do their 'fair share'. One major propaganda avenue was the use of atrocity stories. These aimed to mobilise hatred of the German enemy by spreading details of their atrocities, real or alleged, and was used extensively by Britain, reaching a peak in , with much of the atrocities related to Germany's invasion of Belgium.
This pamphlet documented atrocities both actual and alleged committed by the German army against Belgian civilians. These had a significant impact both in Britain and in America, making front-page headlines in major newspapers. Before the United States declared war in , the Woodrow Wilson administration established a propaganda department along similar lines. Propaganda experts Walter Lippmann and Edward Bernays participated in the Committee on Public Information CPI , which was tasked with swaying popular opinion to encourage enlistment and war bond sales.
The American press played an unwitting role too by relying on daily war news cables controlled by the British government and by spreading false stories of German atrocities in Belgium and German-occupied eastern France supplied by the British as well. Also, exposure of fact that the atrocity stories were false created public distrust. The war propaganda campaign of the CPI "produced within six months such an intense anti-German hysteria as to permanently impress American business and Adolf Hitler, among others with the potential of large-scale propaganda to control public opinion.
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion , a fraudulent anti-Semitic conspiracy text, was first printed in a Black Hundreds newspaper shortly before the Revolution of As the October Revolution unfolded, causing White movement -affiliated Russians to flee to the West, The Protocols was carried along with them and assumed a new purpose. Until then, The Protocols had remained obscure;  it now became an instrument for blaming Jews for the Russian Revolution. It was a directly political weapon, used against the Bolsheviks who were depicted as overwhelmingly Jewish, allegedly executing the Judeo-Bolshevist "plan" embodied in The Protocols.
The purpose was to discredit communism, prevent the West from recognizing the Soviet Union , and bring about the downfall of Vladimir Lenin 's regime. Russian revolutionaries of the 19th and 20th centuries distinguished two different aspects covered by the English term propaganda. Soviet propaganda meant dissemination of revolutionary ideas, teachings of Marxism, and theoretical and practical knowledge of Marxist economics , while agitation meant forming favourable public opinion and stirring up political unrest. These activities did not carry negative connotations as they usually do in English and were encouraged.
Expanding dimensions of state propaganda, the Bolsheviks actively used transportation such as trains, aircraft and other means. Joseph Stalin 's regime built the largest fixed-wing aircraft of the s, Tupolev ANT , exclusively for this purpose.
Named after the famous Soviet writer Maxim Gorky who had recently returned from fascist Italy , it was equipped with a powerful radio set called "Voice from the sky", printing and leaflet-dropping machinery, radio stations , photographic laboratory , film projector with sound for showing movies in flight, library, etc. The aircraft could be disassembled and transported by railroad if needed.
The giant aircraft set a number of world records.
Bernays, a nephew of Freud, who wrote the book Propaganda early in the 20th century,  later coined the terms "group mind" and "engineering consent", important concepts in practical propaganda work. He wrote: . The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organised habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country. We are governed, our minds are molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of.
This is a logical result of the way in which our democratic society is organised. Vast numbers of human beings must cooperate in this manner if they are to live together as a smoothly functioning society. The file Century of the Self by Adam Curtis documents the immense influence of these ideas on public relations and politics throughout the last century.
25. The Cold War
Lippmann, in Public Opinion also worked on the subject, as well as the American advertising pioneer and founder of the field of public relations Edward Bernays , a nephew of Freud, who wrote the book Propaganda early in the 20th century. According to Alex Carey , one distinctive feature of the 20th century was "the professionalising and institutionalising of propaganda", as it became an increasingly prominent, sophisticated, and self-conscious tactic of both government and business. After the defeat of Germany in the First World War , military officials such as Erich Ludendorff suggested that British propaganda had been instrumental in their defeat.
Later, the Nazis adapted many British propaganda techniques during their time in power. Joseph Goebbels was placed in charge of this ministry shortly after Hitler took power in All journalists, writers and artists were required to register with one of the Ministry's subordinate chambers for the press, fine arts, music, theatre, film, literature or radio. Hitler met nearly every day with Goebbels to discuss the news, and Goebbels would obtain Hitler's thoughts on the subject.
Goebbels then met with senior Ministry officials to pass down the official Party line on world events. Broadcasters and journalists required prior approval before their works were disseminated.
Along with posters, the Nazis produced a number of films and books to spread their beliefs. Goals were to establish external enemies countries that allegedly inflicted the Treaty of Versailles on Germany - by territorial claims and ethnocentrism and internal enemies, such as Jews , Romani , homosexuals , Bolsheviks and topics like degenerate art. A major political and ideological cornerstone of Nazi policy was the unification of all ethnic Germans living outside of the Reich's borders under one Greater Germany e. Austria and Czechoslovakia.
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He stated that pain and misery were being forced upon ethnic Germans outside of Germany, and that they dream of common fatherland. He finished by stating they needed to fight for one's nationality. Nazi propaganda used the Heim ins Reich policy for this, which began in For months prior to the beginning of World War II in , German newspapers and leaders had carried out a national and international propaganda campaign accusing Polish authorities of organizing or tolerating violent ethnic cleansing of ethnic Germans living in Poland.
Its credibility doesn't matter. The victor will not be asked whether he told the truth. The main part of this propaganda campaign was the false flag project, Operation Himmler , which was designed to create the appearance of Polish aggression against Germany, which was subsequently used to justify the invasion of Poland.
In , racist laws in Nazi Germany were introduced known as the Nuremberg Laws , the laws forbade non-Aryans and political opponents of the Nazis from the civil-service and any sexual relations and marriage between people classified as "Aryan" and "non-Aryan" Jews, Gypsies, blacks was prohibited as Rassenschande or "race defilement".
History of propaganda - Wikipedia
Hitler and Nazi propagandists played on the anti-Semitism and resentment present in Germany. The Jews were blamed for things such as robbing the German people of their hard work while themselves avoiding physical labour. Soon after the takeover of power in , Nazi concentration camps were established for political opponents. The first people that were sent to the camps were Communists. France, a democratic society in the s, but the people were kept in the dark about critical issues of foreign policy. The government tightly controlled all of the media to promulgate propaganda to support the government's foreign policy of appeasement to the aggressions of Italy and especially Nazi Germany.
There were daily newspapers, all owned separately. The five major national papers based in Paris were all under the control of special interests, especially right-wing political and business interests that supported appeasement. They were all venal, taking large secret subsidies to promote the policies of various special interests.
Many leading journalists were secretly on the government payroll. The regional and local newspapers were heavily dependent on government advertising and published news and editorials to suit Paris. Most of the international news was distributed through the Havas agency, which was largely controlled by the government. Radio was a potentially powerful new medium, but France was quite laggard in consumer ownership of radio sets, and the government impose very strict controls. After , stations were allowed only three brief daily bulletins, of seven minutes each, to cover all the day's news.
The Prime Minister's office closely supervised the news items that were to be broadcast.
Newsreels were tightly censored; they were told to feature none controversial but glamorous entertainers, film premieres, sporting events, high-fashion, new automobiles, an official ceremonies. Motion pictures likely likewise were censored, and were encouraged to reinforce stereotypes to the effect that the French were always lovers of liberty and justice, contending against cruel and barbarous Germans.
The government-subsidized films that glorified military virtues and the French Empire.